Accidents: Factual Reports - Flap Settings Eyed In Hard Landing
Bombardier CL-600-2B16, Vineyard Haven, Mass., Sept. 27, 2009–The Challenger was substantially damaged during a hard landing at Martha’s Vineyard Airport at the end of a Part 91 flight from Denver. According to the crew, the landing was performed with 30 degrees of flap in a 24-knot crosswind with an approach speed of 135 knots. The pilot-in-command told investigators that the approach was stable until approximately 15 feet above the ground when “the aircraft suddenly lost airspeed and landed hard.” The twinjet bounced twice before finally settling on the runway. An airport observation supervisor who saw the landing said the Challenger appeared to be traveling at a high rate of speed when he noticed the spoilers deploy about 3,000 feet down the 5,500-foot runway.
Data from the jet’s enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) revealed a “too low flaps” warning, which activated when the aircraft was about 300 feet above the ground, followed by a sink rate warning when it was about 50 feet above the runway. The aircraft touched down at approximately 150 knots. The unit did not report any wind-shear alerts for the flight. According to Bombardier, the aircraft was certified for normal landings with the flaps set at 45 degrees, and the use of flaps at a setting other than 45 degrees for landing was approved only in the event of specific abnormal conditions.